Past Perfect Tense
The Past Perfect Tense is used to express an action completed before a certain moment in the past (usually, a long time ago). For example, "I met him in Australia in 2015. I had seen him last three years before". (The sense of time in this sentence refers to a completed action in past and especially a long time ago).
Rules: Helping verb "had" is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb is used in sentence.
Structure of Sentence
- Subject + helping verb (had) + (3rd form of verb) + object
- He had written a book.
- They had written a book.
- Subject + helping verb (had) + not + (3rd form of verb) + object
- In negative sentence, "not" is added between helping verb and main verb.
- He had not written a book.
- They had not written a book.
- What had you planned?
- Helping verb (Had) + subject + (3rd form of verb) + object
- Interrogative sentence starts with helping verb "Had".
- The words "what, where, when, how, etc." will be used before "had" in such kind of interrogative sentences.
- Had he written a book?
- Had they written a book?
Note: If two actions happened in the past, it may be necessary to show which action happened earlier than the other. The Past Perfect is mainly used in such situations. The Simple Past is used in one clause and the Past Perfect in the other; as,
- When I reached the station the train had started (so I couldn't get into the train).
- I had done my exercise when he came to see me.
- I had written the letter before he arrived.
Interrogative Negative Sentence
- Helping verb ("Had") + subject + not + (3rd form of verb) + object
- Helping verb "Had" is placed at the beginning of the sentence and "not" is used after the subject.
- Had he not written a book?
- Had they not driven a car?
Rule: Must put Question Mark (?) in the end of interrogative and interrogative negative sentences.
More Examples of Past Perfect Tense
- He had slept.
- She had made cake.
- It had rained heavily last month.
- The film had started before we reached cinema.
- I had finished my work last year.
- They had visited a doctor.
- We had played tennis.
- He had not slept.
- She had not made cake.
- It had not rained heavily last month.
- The film had not started before we reached cinema.
- I had not finished my work last year.
- They had not visited a doctor.
- We had not played tennis.
- Had she made cake?
- Had film started before we reached cinema?
- Had they visited a doctor?
- Had we played tennis?
- When had she made tea?
Interrogative Negative Sentences
- Had it not rained last month?
- Had he not slept?
- Had I not finished my work last year?
- Where had we not played hockey?