An Adjective is a word used to qualify i.e., to add something to the meaning of a Noun or Pronoun. Adjectives increase the value of a noun by adding related information regarding object's shape, color or any other characteristic. They are also called as describing words. For example:
- His uncle is a rich man. ("rich" qualifies "man").
Comparison of Adjectives
Many Adjectives express the attribute of an object in three different ways. Thus there are three Degrees of Comparison:
- The Positive Degree.
- The Comparative Degree.
- The Superlative Degree.
The Positive Degree shows the simple quality of an object without reference to any other. It only explains the existence of some quality of any object.
- His pen is beautiful. ("beautiful" is a Positive Degree).
- Iram's mango is sweet.
Kinds of Adjectives:
The Adjective, an important Part of Speech, is of seven different kinds:
- An Adjective formed from a Proper Noun is called a Proper Adjective, and it always begins with a capital letter.
- Pakistani tea
- American Car
- English Wool.
- An Adjective of Quality shows the kind, the quality or the state of a person or a thing.
- A rich man
- A new book
- Fresh milk
- An Adjective of Quantity shows how much of a thing is meant.
- Some rice
- Little hope
- A half holiday
- A Numeral Adjective shows how many persons or things are meant, or in what order a person or a thing stands.
- Three books
- Ninth class
- Many trees
- A Demonstrative Adjective points out which person or thing is meant.
- This dog
- That book
- These boys
- Those pictures
- An Interrogative Adjective is used with Nouns to ask questions.
- Whose pen is this?
- Which way will you go?
- What book is that?
Note: The words "whose" "what" and "which" are the only three Interrogative Adjectives.
- A Possessive Adjective is used with Nouns to shows possession.
Note: Possessive Adjectives are also called Possessive Pronouns.
The Comparative Degree shows a higher degree of the quality and is used when two objects of the same kind or class are compared.
- She is older than I. ("older" is a Comparative Degree).
- His pen is more beautiful than mine. ("more beautiful" is a Comparative Degree).
The Superlative Degree shows the highest degree of the quality and is used when one object is compared with all other things of the same class.
- She is the oldest of all. ("oldest" is Superlative Degree).
- His pen is the most beautiful of all. ("most beautiful" is a Superlative Degree).
Use of Adjectives
Here are some important points about the use of adjectives:
- The comparative degree of an adjective is followed by "than"; as,
Fatima is wiser than Eshaal.
But when selection of one but of the two objects is meant, we use "of" in place of "than"; as,
He is the taller of the two.
- Latin comparatives ("junior", "senior", "superior" and "inferior") are followed by "to":
- He is senior to me and I am junior to him.
- This cloth is superior to that.
- His art is inferior to mine.
- If two objects are compared with each other, the latter term of comparison must exclude the former by using "any other".
- Gold is more precious than any other metal.
- Karachi is larger than any other city in Pakistan.
- The superlative degree is used only when more than two things of the same class are compared. It is preceded by "the".
- Karachi is the largest of all the cities in Pakistan.
- Aruba is the tallest girl in the class.
- Double comparatives or double superlatives must not be used.
This book is more better than that. This book is much better than that.
This book is the most best of all. This book is the best of all.
- Comparative cannot be used with "comparatively".
I have bought a comparatively easier book. I have bought a comparatively easy book.
- When two qualities of the same person or thing are compared, the comparative must be formed by using "more" with the positive; as,
He is more honest than industrious.
- The positive and the superlative degrees cannot be mixed up in the same sentence.
Hira is the best and wise of all the girls. Hira is the best and the wisest of all the girls.
He is the most intelligent and honest of all our servants. He is the most intelligent and the most honest of all our servants.