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Past Perfect Tense

The Past Perfect Tense is used to express an action completed before a certain moment in the past (usually, a long time ago). For example, "I met him in Australia in 2015. I had seen him last three years before". (The sense of time in this sentence refers to a completed action in past and especially a long time ago).

Rules: Helping verb "had" is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb is used in sentence.

Structure of Sentence

Positive Sentence

Examples

  1. He had written a book.
  2. They had written a book.

Negative Sentence

Note:

Examples

  1. He had not written a book.
  2. They had not written a book.
  3. What had you planned?

Interrogative Sentence

Note:

Examples

  1. Had he written a book?
  2. Had they written a book?

Note: If two actions happened in the past, it may be necessary to show which action happened earlier than the other. The Past Perfect is mainly used in such situations. The Simple Past is used in one clause and the Past Perfect in the other; as,

  1. When I reached the station the train had started (so I couldn't get into the train).
  2. I had done my exercise when he came to see me.
  3. I had written the letter before he arrived.

Interrogative Negative Sentence

Note:

Examples

  1. Had he not written a book?
  2. Had they not driven a car?

Rule: Must put Question Mark (?) in the end of interrogative and interrogative negative sentences.

More Examples of Past Perfect Tense

Positive Sentences

  1. He had slept.
  2. She had made cake.
  3. It had rained heavily last month.
  4. The film had started before we reached cinema.
  5. I had finished my work last year.
  6. They had visited a doctor.
  7. We had played tennis.

Negative Sentences

  1. He had not slept.
  2. She had not made cake.
  3. It had not rained heavily last month.
  4. The film had not started before we reached cinema.
  5. I had not finished my work last year.
  6. They had not visited a doctor.
  7. We had not played tennis.

Interrogative Sentences

  1. Had she made cake?
  2. Had film started before we reached cinema?
  3. Had they visited a doctor?
  4. Had we played tennis?
  5. When had she made tea?

Interrogative Negative Sentences

  1. Had it not rained last month?
  2. Had he not slept?
  3. Had I not finished my work last year?
  4. Where had we not played hockey?


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List of all English Tenses

Below is list of all English tenses including the structure and explanation of usage of each tense:

Present Tense   →
  1. Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense
  2. Present Continuous Tense
  3. Present Perfect Tense
  4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Tense   →
  1. Past Simple (Indefinite) Tense
  2. Past Continuous Tense
  3. Past Perfect Tense
  4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Future Tense   →
  1. Future Indefinite (Simple) Tense
  2. Future Continuous Tense
  3. Future Perfect Tense
  4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense


Relevant Topics  →
  1. How Many Tenses in English
  2. The Sequence of Tenses













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